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Mong has existed since Xia Mong era in Northern Asia (aka "Xeeb Mong" or Xia Dynasty). Our name was primarily seen in two transliterations during the ancient time (盟 & 蒙). The Mong Shu and the Bamboo Annals recorded the Mong's history and people. Mong Shu is the Mong writing system during the Zhou Dynasty that was recorded on jades and sheets of stones mainly to document the history and events of "Xia [Xiongnu]" people. The name Mong was transliterated under the character 盟. Mong's character includes the Sun, the Moon, and the Mound [vessel]. This Mong transliteration was mainly used as a political name for the Alliance [Ally] or the United Nations (Mong Guo).

Mong as a people probably existed long before Xia Dynasty. For example, Mong's oral histories speak of the world's creation, Mong learned how to make hemp clothes thousands of years ago, and Mong elders said two floods of planet earth killed almost all humans. Unearthed artifacts of the Yellow River Basin especially Shandong Dawenkou culture dated to be 2600 B.C. to 4300 B.C. contains the Mong [symbol] character name. However, since Mong's historical records were destroyed in the past, our name as a people and place can only be traced as far as available literature.

Since Han Dynasty, Han defined "Mong" for the meanings of [tribal] Alliance or the Allies. It is now interpreted as uniting and for that meaning. Later generations continue to use it for various unifications among the northern tribes.It was also used to reference the allegiances among the southerners. They (Han, Manyi, ManShu, Baiyue, mainly the southerners) pronounced "Mong" into "Meng" under their non-aspirated mother tongue. "Meng" is considered derogatory by many and has become a term under "Han language" in referencing Mong during later periods.


  • Mong Shi Shuang Shi, known in the literature, are two groups of people. Some Mong elders of China still teach that "Shuav" used to be "Shuang" who lived among the Mong at the Yellow River.
  • The name Mong exists under the Bamboo Annals as northern people, a state, and the Alliance (盟) during Zhou Dynasty. For example, in summer, Mong and Xiang people wanted to succeed in the Zheng area and aided Zheng. However, once the people of Zheng, Qi, and Wei started to attack Mong and Xiang, the [Mong & Xiang] kings fled back to Mong [area], and Xiang refugees fled to Jia. 《左传》有记载: “夏, 盟, 向求成于郑, 既而背之秋, 郑人, 齐人, 卫人伐盟, 向. 王迁盟, 向之民于郏."


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  • Mong existed as a regional name. For examples, Mong Bo, Mong Mountains, Eastern Mong Lords (Dong Mong), Mongal (Mong Nkaujlag), Mong Gu.
  • Others made Mong into their clan name. The books Cíhǎi, Ciyuán, and Xìngshì Zhuīgēn Xún Zǔ (辞海, 辞源, 姓氏追根寻祖) all recorded that Mong (蒙) was a clan name deriving from the Mong Mountain of the Yellow River.
  • Mong was known as Eastern Mong (东蒙/东盟) at Shandong and lived among the Eastern Yi (Dongyi).
  • Mong was used as a country name. For example, Mong Guo of the Zhou Dynasty, "Mong Xia", Mong Guo of the Sixteen Dynasties, Da Mong Guo of the Southwest, and Da Mong Gu of the north.
  • Mong was recognized as a people during Zhou, Sui, Tang, Liao, Song, Jin, TuamTshoj, Yuan, Qing, and Republic of China.
  • The book of Dìwáng Shìjì (帝王世纪) recorded that Jin Emperor Fumi stated that "Mong was Northern Bo, namely Jing Bo, all belong to Tang's Mong territory."
  • The Chuan Chronicle says that "Zhou is zong Mong" ("txoob Moob"), who later went by different clan names.《传》曰: "周之宗盟,异姓为后。"
  • The excavation of Hauv Neeg Mong Shu (侯马盟书) writing is the testimony of the Mong monarch kingdom during the time of the Zhou Dynasty. Mong vows were documented onto jades and stones known as Mong Shu.
  • Xiongnu were known as Mong under the book "Mongal HeleBiqih" by Cha Hastorji.
  • After Mong lost control of the Yellow River Basin (YRB), Southerners labeled Mong into Xiongnu. SiMa Qian wrote that XiongNu ancestors are the Xia and some Miao descendants who fled into the north led by Chunwei. They became known under names such as Shan Rong, Mo Zhong, and Sun Zhou. They took their livestock and lived with Northern Man. "匈奴,其先祖夏后氏之苗裔也,曰淳维。唐虞以上有山戎﹑猃狁﹑荤粥,居于北蛮,随畜牧而转移."
  • The term "Hu" was used to classify the northern Alliances (The Five Hu) which it is interpreted differently between Mong and Han languages.
  • Once Mong came back and took control of the YRB, Mong created multiple kingdoms during the Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern Dynasties. They were named after previous ancestral kingdoms during the Zhou Dynasty of the Mong Guo. One of them was Mong Country. For example, Liu Kun & Duan Pidi created the Mong Country (蒙国)。Reference the allegiance article "Yu Duan Pidi Mong Writing" (与段匹磾盟文).
  • Mongal (Mogal / Mong Nkaujlag) was first known to exist during Sui Dynasty. This was when Mong of the NE had already returned to the YRB and central region.
  • Mong's name was used again during Tang Dynasty. The northern plain was known as "Ancient Mong. "
  • Mong colonized and ruled the southwest. As a result, that region was known as the Great Mong Country (大蒙国)and then Southern Zhao Country.
  • Western Xia was part of the Later Tang, and the people were known to go by White Mong (White Mongguor). Eastern Xia during this period was the Northeast. Mongs were Xia people who took refuge in the north, and their descendants returned.
  • Mong (Mo) was used in all Liao (Ntuj Tshoj), Jin (Jurchen), Song Chao (Xov Tshoj), and Da Chao (Tuam Tshoj) countries. It was also defined as "Da."
  • The terms Blue Mong & White Mong first existed in history during the TuamTshoj country. Blue Mong united with the White Mong of the YRB and ruled Central Asia, Europe, Southern Song, and other regions.
  • Mong was not just part of the Yuan government, Mong was the Mong Yuan government. The end of [southern portion of] Mong Yuan Dynasty was when many Mong took refuge in Jiangxi and other southern mountain regions.
  • Many Mong hid in the canyons and mountains of SW China since the mid-16th century. These Mong were misunderstood for being Southern Maab (Nanman & Baiyue). Therefore, since the foundation of the People's Republic of China, they were grouped with others into several [minority] ethnic names. National histories and literatures were then written for them based on the newly defined ethnics.

    You may download the text book "Mong China History and Heritage Preservation" for more details and references.


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